It said the US failed to provide evidence to support the ban, and the firm also rejected claims it had links to the Chinese government.
The US has restricted the use of Huawei products over national security concerns.
It has also been lobbying allies to shun the Chinese telecoms firm.
Huawei is one of the world's largest telecommunications equipment and services providers.
The lawsuit is part of a wider push by the company in recent months to challenge claims its products pose security risks.
"The US Congress has repeatedly failed to produce any evidence to support its restrictions on Huawei products. We are compelled to take this legal action as a proper and last resort," Huawei Rotating Chairman Guo Ping said.
"This ban not only is unlawful, but also restricts Huawei from engaging in fair competition, ultimately harming US consumers."