The announcement came amid declining form, culminating in a 12th-place finish in Japan's national championships in December.
She cited a lack of motivation as a reason for the decision.
"After last year's Japan nationals, all the goals that had kept me going disappeared, along with my will to compete," she wrote in her blog.
Asada said that she had not been able to achieve the techniques or results she had hoped for since returning to competition after a break following the Sochi Olympics in 2014.
"This was a huge decision for me, but I regard it as only one stage of my life and will find new dreams and goals going forward," she said.